DON WHITLEY SCIENTIFIC – THE LEADING INTERNATIONAL SUPPLIER TO THE MICROBIOLOGY AND TISSUE CULTURE INDUSTRIES


Contact Us +44 (0) 1274 595728 sales@dwscientific.co.uk

Follow Don Whitley Scientific

Posts Tagged ‘hypoxia’

Range of Large Hypoxic Workstations to Accommodate Laboratory Instruments

Abrupt changes in temperature and oxygen levels can significantly alter the many oxygen-sensitive signalling pathways that sense and react to the cellular micro-environment. Don Whitley Scientific have developed a range of hypoxic workstations large enough to accommodate many instruments which would previously have been confined to the bench; minimising the need to transfer cells between bench and workstation which would result in exposing them to raised levels of oxygen.

The H135 HEPA Hypoxystation and i2 Instrument Workstation have larger footprints and optional shelving to provide ample space for both instrumentation and culturing. The removable front facilitates transfer of equipment in and out of the workstations. Precise control of temperature, oxygen, carbon dioxide and humidity mimic the physiological environment, ensuring true in vivo cell behaviour.

Working with manufacturers of diverse laboratory instruments, Don Whitley Scientific have validated a number of options for analysis and imaging of cells:

Whitley H135 HEPA Hypoxystation

* Incucyte® live-cell analysis: the Incucyte ZOOM comfortably fits inside the H135, enabling real-time quantitative study of growing cells inside the hypoxic incubator environment

* Microscopes: a range of microscopes can be placed inside the controlled workstation environment, allowing users to image cells during incubation

* Seahorse XFe Analyzer: a modified version of the H135, the i2 Instrument Workstation, has been customised to accommodate the specific requirements of the XF Analyzer for metabolism assays.

We are happy to discuss your unique sizing and environmental needs; please contact us today to discuss any custom requirements.

What our users are saying:

“Due to the utility of having the Incucyte S3 live imaging system inside our H135 Workstation, we have expanded our collaboration portfolio exponentially. We have performed cancer biology, immunology, neuro and vascular physiology, and many other types of experiments in our system under controlled atmospheric conditions. The large volume of the H135 is key to having enough room for both the imager and sufficient workspace to carry out experiments.”

– Dr Adam Case, Assistant Professor, Dept. of Cellular and Integrative Physiology,
University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE.

 

Whitley Hypoxystation

The Leukemic Stem Cell Niche: Adaptation to “Hypoxia” Versus Oncogene Addiction

Hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) are responsible for constantly maintaining and replenishing the supply of new blood and immune cells. They give rise to both lymphoid and myeloid progenitor cells, which then proceed to differentiate down their respective paths to form various specialized cells such as erythrocytes, macrophages, B and T cells, to name a few. Within the body, HSCs are found to reside in extremely low oxygen environments called stem cell niches (SCN). Like all other regulated cell cycles, HSCs can lead to cancers such as leukemia and lymphoma if cell division becomes uncontrolled.

MEL (a), Kasumi-1 (b), or NB4 (c) cells were incubated in atmosphere at 0.1% O2 and lysed at the indicated times, and total cell lysates were subjected to immunoblotting with the indicated antibodies. GAPDH, H4, or ARD1 were detected to verify loading equalization. Migration of molecular weight markers is indicated on the left (kDa). For each cell population, one out of three independent experiments with similar outcome is shown.

Figure 2: Suppression of oncogenic proteins driving non-CML blood neoplasias in the course of cell “adaptation to hypoxia.” MEL (a), Kasumi-1 (b), or NB4 (c) cells were incubated in atmosphere at 0.1% O2 and lysed at the indicated times, and total cell lysates were subjected to immunoblotting with the indicated antibodies. GAPDH, H4, or ARD1 were detected to verify loading equalization. Migration of molecular weight markers is indicated on the left (kDa). For each cell population, one out of three independent experiments with similar outcome is shown.

In this paper, Cheloni et al. primarily focused on chronic myeloid leukemia (CML).

The authors hypothesized that suppression of the BCR-Abl oncogene is likely a key positive regulator of LSC survival within “hypoxic” SCNs. To analyse the various mechanisms and responses that CML cells demonstrate within SCNs, the authors studied correlations between varied oxygen and glucose concentrations with the amount of BCR-Abl produced. All tests were performed using two human CML cell lines, K562 and KCL22. Testing conditions were precisely controlled to mimic the SCN environment as close as possible. Using a Hypoxystation supplied by Don Whitely Scientific, a water-saturated atmosphere comprising of 0.1% O2, 94.9% N2 and 5% CO2 was generated and maintained.

The research conducted and documented by Cheloni et al. has provided great insight into several key regulatory mechanisms associated with leukemic stem cells as well as an explanation for their notorious reputation for having high relapse rates. Additionally, they established that the triggering of oncogene suppression associated with CML is due to severe energy restriction rather than simply the “adaptation to hypoxia.”

The Don Whitley Scientific Hypoxystation provides the user incredible flexibility as it can control oxygen down to 0.1% while providing a temperature and humidity controlled environment with ample working space. The extreme precision provided by the Hypoxystation was critical to the collection of accurate and reliable data when recreating the demanding environment that comprises SCNs. The atmosphere is constantly monitored and adjusted by the real-time feedback system to ensure accuracy and ISO class 3 clean room HEPA filtration is also available for long term cell culture applications.

Choose your atmosphere with the Hypoxystation hypoxia chamber. Accurately control O2, CO2, Temperature and Humidity.   

Hypoxystation is the only hypoxic chamber purpose built for physiological cell culture research. Specifically designed to create normoxic, hypoxic and anoxic conditions within a controlled and sustained workstation environment, this hypoxic incubator is ideal for research requiring the ability to accurately control O2, CO2, temperature and humidity. The Whitley Internal HEPA Filtration System provides a particle-free internal environment that exceeds ISO 14644 class 3 clean atmosphere.  With such accurate control and the ability to manipulate cells in situ without altering the incubation environment, research into cell biology can be performed over a comprehensive range of oxygen tensions with precision. Don Whitley Scientific offer the following range of Hypoxystations:

                                                                                   

Hypoxystation H35

Hypoxystation H45

Hypoxystation H85

Hypoxystation H135

i2 Instrument Workstation

Application possibilities for Hypoxystation are endless; it is being used for research into tumour microenvironment, hypoxia pathways and HIF signalling, in vitro modelling of in situ environments, cancer cell metastasis, angiogenesis, and many other fields where cells may benefit from a more physiological atmosphere.

 

Clostridium difficile studies can be done in a Whitley Workstation

Hypoxic Snapshot Analysis in a 3D Engineered Tumour Scaffold

Researchers have long exposed 2 dimensional cells to varying degrees of hypoxia, often found in the tumour microenvironment. This can be great for showing overall hypoxic protein expression, but fails to account for cell to cell interactions, tissue gradients, and metabolic reprogramming. To more closely mimic in vivo conditions, a 3D culture environment is necessary. While 3D culture is nothing new, Rodenhizer et al in their paper “A three-dimensional engineered tumour for spatial snapshot analysis of cell metabolism and phenotype in hypoxic gradients” found a novel way to culture in a 3D environment while maintaining the ability to perform analyses that only function in 2D. These ingenious authors did all of this in their Hypoxystation by Don Whitley Scientific. They were able to analyse and map cellular metabolism and spatially identify known and novel metabolic response to hypoxia.

The team took carcinoma cells and seeded them onto a novel rolled scaffold system the authors termed “TRACER”. They exposed the scaffold to varying degrees of hypoxia, down to as low as 0.2% O2. After incubation they unrolled the 3D scaffold and started analysis to create a metabolic snapshot of the tumour. They found the 3D scaffold tumours displayed different concentrations of metabolites as compared to 2D tumour cells, implying cell to cell interactions plays a role in tumour metabolism, depending on the depth of the cell in the scaffold. The future of cancer research will be shaped by this innovative technique and oxygen control plays an important role with use of the Hypoxystation.

single layer TRACER

Image from Nature Materials Supplementary Information, “A Three-dimensional engineered tumour for spatial snapshot analysis of cell metabolism phenotype in hypoxic gradients”

 

The Don Whitley Scientific Hypoxystation is ideal for many applications, as it can control oxygen down to 0.1% while providing a temperature and humidity controlled environment with ample working space. ISO class 3 clean room HEPA filtration is also available for long term cell culture applications.

Whitley Hypoxystation

Hypoxia and the Hallmarks of Cancer: Metabolic Reprogramming

Hanahan and Weinberg’s seminal papers on the Hallmarks of Cancer describe how cancer cells accommodate the frenzied growth characteristic of tumours. Low oxygen is eminently characteristic of tumours, and in this hypoxic environment, metabolism is reprogrammed to satisfy energetic and synthetic needs of the cells.

 

Our series on Hypoxia and the Hallmarks of Cancer has showcased research on how hypoxia in the tumour microenvironment affects 8 of the Hallmarks, and in the fifth and final chapter, we look more closely at how researchers are using the Hypoxystation to delineate the Hallmark Metabolic Reprogramming.

The Hypoxystation creates authentic cell culture conditions with regard to oxygen, CO2, temperature, and humidity.  Glove-less access to culture and manipulate cells under physiological atmosphere, in a HEPA-clean environment, allows cancer researchers to re-create the hypoxic tumour microenvironment. Hypoxystation user Dr Ali Tavassolli states that “We have only ever used the H35. I like the ease with which we can regulate and change the oxygen concentration”. And our user Dr. Brad Wouters at the Princess Margaret Cancer Centre in Toronto, who recently purchased his fourth Hypoxystation, says, “The continuous hypoxia we achieve in the workstation is a prerequisite for studies with hypoxia-activated drugs used in cancer therapy strategies.”

Hallmarks of Cancer

Metabolic Reprogramming

Changes in energy metabolism feature prominently in aggressive malignancy, and tumour hypoxia and the responding signalling pathways, featuring many HIF target genes, clearly interface with reprogrammed tumour metabolism. Reprogramming of conventional metabolic pathways serves to satisfy burgeoning energetic and anabolic needs of the tumour cells; many cancer cells may preferentially utilise glycolysis over oxidative phosphorylation, uncoupling mitochondrial metabolism from oxygen availability. Hypoxia-induced HIF’s attenuate mitochondrial function through diverse mechanisms, including down-regulation of enzymes in the electron transport chain and suppression of biogenesis of mitochondria. Signalling pathways involving HIF’s and many products of oncogenes and tumour suppressor genes interact to balance the energy needs of dividing cells with the requirement for bio-synthetic intermediates. Activation of lipid biosynthesis and other pathways with biosynthetic significance, such as the pentose phosphate pathway, is another metabolic consequence of hypoxia and HIF up-regulation. Reactive oxygen species ROS produced by the mitochondria stabilise HIF-1, influence redox homeostasis, and provide protective antioxidants to the cancer cells.

reprogrammingSliceLITERATURE:

Clostridium difficile studies can be done in a Whitley Workstation

Hallmarks of Cancer: Sustaining Growth and Resisting Cell Death

In part four of our mini-series describing “Hypoxia and the Hallmarks of Cancer”, we look more closely at how researchers are using the Hypoxystation to delineate the Hallmarks Sustaining Growth and Resisting Cell Death.

 

 

 

 

 

Hallmarks of Cancer

Resisting Cell Death

The ability of cells to resist cell death under hypoxic conditions is central to the progression of cancer and the acquisition of resistance to chemotherapy so frequently encountered in tumors. Hypoxia in the tumor microenvironment exerts selective pressure favoring cells that have lost the functionality of apoptosis genes and can expand uncontrollably.  Hypoxia also contributes to survival by inducing autophagy, in a pathway involving HIF-1, beclin, BNIP3 and BNIP3L, in which cellular autophagy acts to recycle cellular organelles, satisfy metabolic demand and improve hypoxic tolerance.  HIF-1 mediates cell-cycle retardation and arrest, causing hypoxic tumor cells to become resistant to radiotherapies. NF-κB, through its effects on myriad transcription factors, for example through inhibition of cell death signalling, is activated by hypoxia and reactive oxygen species, and also promotes cell survival.

Sustaining Growth

Cancer is essentially based on the cells’ inability to “stop” when suppressors signal an end to growth, and the compunction to “go” despite a lack of bonafide growth signals. Hypoxia in the context of cancer, in precipitating genomic instability and mutation, results in numerous inactive tumor suppressor genes and activated growth factor genes, such that the combination of constitutive proliferative signaling and mutated cancer genes leads to sustained growth. HIF and NF-κB regulated pathways involving Notch, mTOR, WNT11, CAIX, and IGF-1, among many others, contribute to sustained growth in cancer as regulation of proliferation derails. Induced by hypoxia-regulated proteins, anabolic pathways for nucleotide and lipid synthesis are ramped up and enable the rapid proliferation typical of cancer.

SustainingGrowthSliceLITERATURE:

 

 

 

 

capture

Hypoxia and the Hallmarks of Cancer: Angiogenesis and Metastasis

The following was provided by HypOxygen, our distributor of Hypoxic Workstations in the US – Hanahan and Weinberg’s “Hallmarks of Cancer” are at the root of the multi-step progression of cancer, and they are all influenced by hypoxia in the tumor microenvironment. In this mini-review series, HypOxygen has been taking a closer look at the way Hypoxystation users worldwide are delineating the effects of hypoxia on the Hallmarks of Cancer: so far, we’ve showcased Avoiding Immune Destruction and Tumour Promoting Inflammation and Genome Instability and Mutation and Enabling Replicative Immortality.

In the Hypoxystation, researchers working with cells in culture can mimic the physiological conditions that produce those characteristic Hallmarks. The Hypoxystation enables glove-less access to cultivate and manipulate cells under physiological conditions, in a HEPA-clean environment. Oxygen levels in the Hypoxystation can be reliably and accurately adjusted to below 1%, reflecting the high metabolism, low perfusion tumor microenvironment.

 

hypoxia

 

Hallmarks Of Cancer
1. Inducing Angiogenesis

Angiogenesis and tumor-associated neo-vascularization are central to the progression of cancer, and hypoxia in the fast-growing, poorly perfused tumor setting is one of the main factors driving the formation of new vessels. Hypoxia in the tumor activates the hypoxia stress response, which is mediated at the cellular level by HIF, VEGF and many other cytokines, growth factors and guidance molecules. As a consequence, endothelial cells and pericytes proliferate and form new blood vessels, which are, however, disorderly and leaky, in turn exacerbating hypoxia in the tumor. Cancer treatment strategies striving to normalize tumor vessels for the purpose of improved drug delivery and alleviation of hypoxia in the tumor are showing great promise.

AngiogenesisSliceLITERATURE:

2. Activating Invasion and Metastasis

As with the other Hallmarks of Cancer, metastasis and cancer progression are correlated with low oxygen levels in the tumor. HIF’s activate the expression of more than 1000 genes, numerous of which play a role in inducing genes involved in the EMT, through direct interactions with HRE’s at promotor sites and other mechanisms such as epigenetic alterations, like methylation/demethylation. Hypoxia promotes migration and invasion by facilitating the endothelial-mesenchymal transition, altering cell-cell contacts, and reducing adhesion to the extra-cellular matrix. Cancer cells and neighboring cells such as fibroblasts are all influenced by hypoxia, and all contribute to the restructuring of the tumor microenvironment. The effects of the Hallmarks of Cancer continually perturb and promote each other, as when hypoxia-driven metabolic reprogramming causes acidification of the extracellular microenvironment through increased production and secretion of lactate, in turn augmenting ECM remodeling and immune evasion. Similarly, formation of novel blood vessels enables extravasation and migration of cancer cells to form new tumors.

MetastasisSliceLITERATURE:


capture

The Hallmarks of Cancer: Genome Instability and Immortality

 

Dr Burga Kalz Fuller continues to look at the way the iconic “Hallmarks of Cancer“, as first described by Douglas Hanahan and Robert Weinberg, are influenced by hypoxia in the tumour microenvironment.

Oxygen around and within the tumour cells is central to metabolism, immunology, epigenetics and therapy resistance of all the cancers; in the lab, oxygen levels during tumour cell culture exert effects on metabolism, maintenance, cell yield, and cell survival. That’s why the authentic physiological cell culture conditions in the Hypoxystation help advance research into tumour progression and other events which determine malignancy and outcome of cancer diseases. The Hypoxystation enables glove-less access to cultivate and manipulate cells under physiological conditions, in a HEPA-clean environment.

In this mini-review series, we take a closer look at the way Hypoxystation users worldwide are delineating Hypoxia and the Hallmarks of Cancer. Previously, we had showcased research by Hypoxystation users involved with Avoiding Immune Destruction and Tumour Promoting Inflammation. Next, we want to show the many ways in which Hypoxystation users are researching the Hallmarks Genome Instability and Mutation and Enabling Replicative Immortality. One of those researchers, Dr. David Ho of the University of Miami, presented his results at the Cell Symposium on Cancer, Inflammation and Immunity in San Diego in June.


Let us show you how Don Whitley Scientific can Define Your Environment.

David Ho

Dr. David Ho from the University of Miami with his poster presentation at the Cell Symposium on Cancer, Inflammation and Immunity

GenomeSlice

1. Genome Instability and Mutation

Tumour hypoxia drives genomic instability both by increasing the volume of mutations (DNA strand breaks, base damage, and gene amplification) and by diminishing DNA repair efficiency. The low levels of oxygen typical of the tumor microenvironment decrease transcription of genes related to homologous repair and non-homologous end-joining, leading to the genetic instability observed in hypoxic tumour cells. Hypoxia induces production of reactive oxygen species ROS, which interact with nucleic acids, proteins and lipids, causing cellular damage and mutagenesis. Hypoxic activation of HIF-1 also upregulates expression of certain miRNA’s which suppress DNA repair pathways.

 

LITERATURE:

  • Jiang et al. (2016) “Hypoxia Potentiates the Radiation-Sensitizing Effect of Olaparib in Human Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Xenografts by Contextual Synthetic Lethality” Int J Radiation Oncol Biol Phys, Vol. 95, No. 2, pp. 772 e781, 2016
    www.redjournal.org/article/S0360-3016(16)00056-0/abstract Hypoxystation user
  • Doherty et al. (2016) “Photodynamic killing of cancer cells by a Platinum(II) complex with cyclometallating ligand” Nature Scientific Reports 6:22668 (2016)
    www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4778139/ Hypoxystation user
  • Hunter et al. (2016) “Hypoxia-activated prodrugs: paths forward in the era of personalised medicine” Br J Cancer. 2016 May 10; 114(10): 1071–1077
    www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4865974/Hypoxystation user
  • Leszczynska et al. (2016) “Mechanisms and consequences of ATMIN repression in hypoxic conditions: roles for p53 and HIF-1” Scientific Reports 6:21698 (2016
    www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4753685/ Hypoxystation user
  • Timpano and Uniacke (2016) “Human Cells Cultured Under Physiological Oxygen Utilize Two Cap-binding Proteins to Recruit Distinct mRNAs for Translation” Journal of Biological Chemistry 291(20):jbc.M116.717363
    www.jbc.org/content/291/20/10772.abstract Hypoxystation user
  • Haider et al. (2016) “Genomic alterations underlie a pan-cancer metabolic shift associated with tumour hypoxia“ Genome Biology (2016) 17:140
    www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27358048

ImmortalitySlice

2. Enabling Replicative Immortality

Cancer is characterized by a nearly unlimited capacity of the tumour cells to proliferate. Hypoxia in the rapidly growing tumour supports immortalisation of a subset of cancer cells, the “cancer stem cells”. Factors such as hypoxia in the tumour microenvironment derail signals indicating senescence and initiating apoptosis, enabling an immortal lifespan. Telomerase, Notch, c-Myc, and OCT4 mediate the acquisition of a stem cell-like phenotype through down-regulation of differentiation genes and activation of stem genes, generating CSC’s with aggressive properties. These cancer stem cells residing in an hypoxic tumour niche are uniquely resistant to many therapies, where low oxygen promotes stemness, maintenance, and self-renewal of the CSC’s. Metastasis and invasion by these CSC’s induce the formation of secondary tumours, which in most cases dramatically worsen the prognosis for cancer patients.

LITERATURE:

Scientist Working in Whitley Workstation

Hypoxia in the Tumour Microenvironment

Hypoxia in the tumour microenvironment affects all the characteristic Hallmarks of Cancer, significantly impacting progression of the cancer and the patients’ prognosis. Inflammation and immunity are both acutely influenced by the low oxygen typical of the tumour microenvironment: hypoxia creates an immune-suppressive network supporting tumour growth and metastasis, and it induces sustained inflammation in a “wound that never heals”.

Cancer research depends on recreating a physiologically accurate environment for cell cultures in the lab, and hypoxia in a closed workstation format such as a Whitley Hypoxystation is the best way to do that. Incubate, image, manipulate and assay – all inside the continuous, reliably stable hypoxic environment. HEPA filtered air scrubbed to ISO 14644 class 3 standards, sterile humidity, and containment options make the Hypoxystation the safest, cleanest workstation available for hypoxic cell culture down to 0.1% O2.

Our Hypoxystation users are investigating all aspects of the Hallmarks of Cancer and how they are shaped by hypoxia. We review their recent research on Avoiding Immune Destruction and Tumour Promoting Inflammation here.

 

hypoxia

Ji Zhang presenting his poster at the Keystone Symposia

Hypoxia and Tumour Metabolism in Whistler with HypOxygen

This article was written by Burga Kalz Fuller of HypOxygen, giving an account of her and HypOxygen’s recent involvement at the Keystone meeting in Whistler, Canada. 

Really, a day in Whistler doesn’t get any better: talks on the newest results on hypoxia and tumour metabolism from morning till night, and outside the snow falls all day, every day. The joint Keystone Symposia on “Adaptations to Hypoxia in Physiology and Disease” and “Tumour Metabolism: Mechanisms and Targets” in Whistler, British Columbia last week featured both skiing and science, and HypOxygen was honoured to be a part of it all.

Joint sessions every day highlighted the many ways in which hypoxia controls gene expression, influences metabolic pathways, and regulates immunological and inflammatory processes, with new data showing how hypoxia affects the Hallmarks of Cancer. North American Hypoxystation users Navdeep Chandel, Nick Denko and Brad Wouters gave talks on respiration, mitochondrial function, and hypoxic regulation of autophagy. European Hypoxystation users Almut Schulze, Janine Erler and Ester Hammond spoke about glucose/lipid metabolism, ECM remodeling and DNA replication in hypoxia. Together, a global community of cancer researchers are targeting hypoxia as a key factor underlying tumour genesis and cancer progression.

Some of our own Hypoxystation users gave poster presentations: Ji Zhang (pictured top left) from Brad Wouters’ lab at Princess Margaret Cancer Center had a poster on “Characterizing oxygen metabolism and hypoxia tolerance in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma“, and Sara Timpano from Dr. Jim Uniacke’s lab at University of Guelph presented “Investigating cellular metabolism, DNA damage, and oxidative stress response under physiological oxygen conditions“. Hypoxystation users Navdeep Chandel, Nick Denko and Brad Wouters gave talks on respiration, mitochondrial function, and hypoxic regulation of autophagy, to name just a few.

 

Sarah Timpano presenting her poster at the Keystone Symposia

Sarah Timpano presenting her poster at the Keystone Symposia

We spoke to many of the Keystone attendees about our Whitley i2 Instrument Workstation and the Whitley H35 HEPA Hypoxystation by Don Whitley Scientific. The closed workstation format of the Hypoxystation provides reliable hypoxia down to 0.1% for cells accustomed to the very low oxygen customary in any body tissue, and especially in the tumour microenvironment. Precise oxygen, carbon dioxide, and humidity control within a temperature-controlled environment as well as ample space for cellular manipulation, assays and microscopic observation allow researchers to mimic and monitor physiological conditions. HEPA filtration, sterile steam humidification, and remote parameter monitoring are some of the features that make the Hypoxystation so unique.

As Jim Uniacke states in this video tutorial on creating physiological oxygen, “It is important to keep cells in the hypoxia workstation up until the point of lysis, as oxygen can rapidly alter the biochemical properties of these translation factors.” His lab has been producing exciting results on translation control at hypoxia with the Hypoxystation for several years, earning him the honorary title of “cancer cells’ worst nightmare.” Dr. Uniacke and all the other researchers at the Keystone symposia are working on conquering the nightmare of cancer, Hypoxygen and Don Whitley Scientific want to assist you in that endeavour where possible.

 

KONICA MINOLTA DIGITAL CAMERA

Molecular Targeting of Hypoxia in Radiotherapy

Most solid tumours exhibit areas of both chronic and acute hypoxia, all of them evolving dynamically as a function of cellular growth, vascularisation, oxygen consuming metabolism and therapy response. Tumour hypoxia, generally far below 1% oxygen, correlates with increased recurrence rates and decreased survival rates in most cancers, so the recent review by Hypoxystation users Rey et al. describing “Molecular Targeting of Hypoxia in Radiotherapy” gives a valuable overview of the mechanisms cancer cells have developed to respond to hypoxia.

Dr. Rey of the Princess Margaret Cancer Centre in Toronto, Canada, and his co-authors Luana Schito, Marianne Koritzinsky and Brad Wouters have contributed vastly to our knowledge about the cellular response to hypoxia in the context of tumour behavior. Since 2009, they have acquired four Hypoxystations for their lab, in order to culture cells under conditions which authentically mimic the physiological environment of cancer. The Hypoxystation provides a closed workstation format for rigorous control of oxygen, CO2, temperature and humidity, facilitating accurate regulation of cell culture conditions as the in vivo tumour situation is simulated.

 

Clipboard01

 

In their 2016 review, Rey et al. describe the cellular response to the complex interplay of temporal and spatial variations in oxygen levels, and the rippling effects exerted on vascular, stromal and immunological responses.

 

Brad Wouters quote

By Burga Kalz Fuller, HypOxygen